|The Making of a Fine Cigar|
How Cigars are Made
The making of a fine cigar begins deep in the tobacco growing fields of the Caribbean, Latin America, and other parts of the world, where careful stewardship of the tobacco crop yields the highest quality leaves for harvest. The multi-step process spans months and even years to convert the raw leaves into suitable components for cigar making. The complexity of the process belies the underlying simplicity of the materials, as a cigar is primarily composed of one ingredient – tobacco.
The Tobacco Plant
Tobacco is grown all over the world, but many of the finest leaves are grown in the Caribbean and Latin America. Originally discovered in the South American Andes region of Ecuador and Peru, the tobacco plant is part of the Solanaceae family which also includes petunias, potatoes and tomatoes. Only two genus of tobacco are smokable, and only one is used in cigar making, Nicotiana tabacum. And while Nicotiana can be grown almost anywhere, it typically thrives in a sandy loam of volcanic soil in a hot, humid climate. Nicotiana tabacum has multiple sub-species that are used in the production of cigars.
· Bahia – which is one of the oldest native seed tobaccos and is grown in Brazil;
· Broadleaf – widely grown especially in the
· Habanesis hybrids – developed from seed
brought to Cuba from Mexico;
· San Andreas Negro – cultivated by the Aztecs in
· Sumatran – planted in Indonesia from seeds brought by explorers and traders.
Varietal experimentation and continual research and development of the species have led to the types of tobacco we know today.
· Brazilian Arapiraca;
· Indonesia (Java) Besuki of which there are two
types Early Harvest (VO – “Vroege oogst” in
Dutch) and Late Harvest (NO-“No oogst” in
· Connecticut Broadleaf – most popular
· Connecticut Shade – also popular for wrappers;
· Connecticut Sun-Grown – with lineage back to
Cuba, also called Havana Seed or Medio
· West African Cameroon;
· Cuban or Nicaraguan Corojo – bred from Criollo plants;
· Cuban or Ecuadoran Corojo 99 – a hybrid developed for wrapper leaf;
· Cuban, Honduran or Nicaraguan Criollo – refers to native seed tobaccos;
· Criollo 98/99 – a more disease resistant version;
· Cuban Habana 2000 developed in Cuba to be more resistant to disease than Corojo;
· Phillipine Isabela - quite mild;
· Brazilian Mata Fina/Mata Norte/Mata Sul, from the Bahia type.
· Dominican Republic Olor - also quite mild.
· Dominican Republic Piloto Cubano, grown in many varieties.
· Mexican San Andres - grown from ancient seeds in the San Andres Valley;
· Dominican Republic San Vicente less powerful in flavor and aroma than Piloto Cubano;
· Indonesian Sumatra;
· Indonesian Tembakau Bawah Naungan or TBN - a crossbreed of the Besuki and Connecticut styles and used for wrappers.
· Indonesian Vorstenlanden - wrapper leaf shade-grown from this seed is also known as VBN.
Each type of plant has its role to play in the making of a fine cigar. While a cigar is primarily composed of three types of tobacco, it is not uncommon now to see blends of five and even seven tobaccos being used in modern day cigars. Similarly, each part of the plant may play a different role as well.
The Growing of Fine Tobacco Leaves
The process of cultivating the leaves is a delicate and intensive process to ensure the highest quality leaves. The tobacco plant is comprised of three different kinds of leaves, depending on their location on the plant. The Ligero leaves reside at the top of the plant and are the strongest in flavor, Seco are in the middle and are used for texture and taste while Volado reside at the bottom of the plant and serves as mild filler for cigars.
The tobacco plant isn’t harvested in its entirety; rather the leaves are picked two or three at a time and only upon reaching their optimum level of development. Well trained and experienced workers can see this distinction visually. Once picked, the leaves are brought to the curing house to be transformed from raw green leaf into something suitable for cigar making.
Curing and Aging the Leaves
The curing houses are huge, hundreds of feet long, often made of cedar, and are well ventilated to ensure rapid drying of the leaves. The leaves are strung up on long poles and hung in the curing house, higher or lower depending on the type of leaf. As the leaves dry they turn from bright green to a dull green. But this is only the beginning.
Once the leaves are dried, they are stacked into bundles for fermentation. The stacked leaves are kept moist and the pressure from being stacked generates a considerable amount of internal heat that helps to drive off impurities such as ammonia and tar. As the leaves cure during a month long process, they are broken down and re-stacked to ensure even curing.
Once fermentation is complete, the leaves are moved to a cooler part of the curing house for extended aging, sometimes taking 2-3 years. The aging process smoothes and improves the flavor. After the initial aging process, the leaves are de-stemmed and re-fermented at higher temperatures for 45-60 days. Once again the leaves are set aside for a second aging in open cedar boxes, which completes the process. Its little wonder cigars don’t cost more, considering such an extensive production process just to condition the tobacco.
Rolling the Cigar
Cigars are made of three parts: the filler, binder and wrapper, each of which can be made from a different variety of tobacco. In the case of the filler, it is often a blend of several different varieties. When smoking a cigar, most of the flavor comes from the filler, but some character comes through the binder and wrapper.
The first step is to bundle the filler, usually long leaf in high quality cigars, tightly together then wrap with binder leaves. At this point, the cigar is pressed into a mold that will determine the final shape (round, squared, torpedo, etc.) and size, measure by ring gauge. The mold is closed and tightened and the proto-cigars are left under pressure until the master roller determines that they are ready for wrapping.
Only the most experienced rollers can progress to the position of master roller, as they are then responsible for the final appearance of the cigar. The master roller carefully selects the best wrapper leaf and carefully cuts it to shape using a sharp tool called a chaveta that looks like a broad, flat and curved spatula. The wrapper is carefully worked on the cigar and sealed with a natural tree sap glue, called gum tragacanth. Once wrapped, the cigar is finished by cutting to length and affixing a small piece of tobacco wrapper leaf to the head, called a cap, which completes the fabrication process.
Wrapping and Final Aging
The finished cigars are typically grouped in bundles and wrapped in absorbent paper in preparation to be aged. The cigar bundles are then classified by types of cigars, the dates that the premium cigars were made, the tobacco blend of the cigars, and the code identifying the roller and master roller who made them. These marked bundles of handmade cigars are carefully placed in the aging room for the aged cigars process. The aging room is temperature and humidity controlled to make sure that the different types of tobacco in the cigars “marry” perfectly. These walk-in humidors maintain the cigars in the perfect environment.
Cigars can age for years. Normally 90 days is sufficient for the tobacco in the cigar to be fully married, but leaving them longer in the aging room improves the taste. Some are aged for over two years in an effort to bring their taste to the perfect level. After final aging, the cigars can be banded and packed for shipping.
The process from tobacco seed to cigar is long and very labor intensive. So when you fire up that cigar and enjoy the complex flavors and aromas, remember to appreciate the long journey it took to get to your hand.